Carbohydrates are a group of nutrients that include organic compounds such as sugar, starch and cellulose. It is a component of food that supplies energy (calories) to the body. One of the three macronutrients (along with proteins and fats). Three broad categories of carbohydrates are sugars (also called simple carbohydrates), starches (also called complex carbohydrates), and fiber. Examples include Grains, fruits, cereals, pasta, breads, and pastries etc.
A fatty or waxy organic compound that is readily soluble in non-polar solvent (e.g. ether) but not in polar solvent (e.g water). Its major biological functions involve energy storage, structural component of cell membrane. Examples include waxes, oils, sterols, cholesterol, fat-soluble vitamins etc.
A large molecule composed of one or more chains of amino acids in a specific order. Proteins are required for the structure, function, and regulation of the body’s cells, tissues, and organs. Examples include enzymes and antibiotics etc.
4. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
A double-stranded nucleic acid that contains the genetic information for cell growth, division, and function. A nucleic acid that carries the genetic information in the cell and is capable of self-replication and synthesis of RNA.
5. Ribonucleic acid (RNA)
Ribonucleic acid is a nucleic acid that is generally single stranded (double stranded in some viruses) and plays a role in transferring information from DNA to protein-forming system of the cell. It involves in protein synthesis (mRNA, tRNA, rRNA, etc.), DNA replication and gene regulation.